miercoles 22 de noviembre del 2017

Assisted migration of forest populations for adapting trees to climate change

Migración asistida de las poblaciones forestales para la adaptación de árboles ante el cambio climático

  • Fecha de Recibido: 2014-10-28; Fecha de Aceptado: 2016-05-20; Fecha de publicación en linea: 2016-08-31

  • Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero  Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros  Dennis G. Joyce  Jean Beaulieu  J. Bradley St. Clair  Barry C. Jaquish 

  • doi: 10.5154/r.rchscfa.2014.10.052
  • páginas: 303-323

En este trabajo se presenta evidencia de que el cambio climático es un proceso que está en curso y que las poblaciones de árboles forestales son genéticamente diferenciadas en caracteres cuantitativos debido a la adaptación en hábitats específicos. Se discuten en detalle las evidencias de que el desplazamiento del hábitat climático apropiado para especies y poblaciones de árboles forestales, debido al rápido cambio climático, probablemente causará estrés importante a las poblaciones naturales de árboles. Debido a los límites físicos de la migración natural, las poblaciones de árboles serán incapaces de mantenerse acopladas al blanco móvil en el que se convertirá su hábitat climático apropiado. El consiguiente desacoplamiento entre las poblaciones naturales y el clima para el cual están adaptadas, provocará probablemente mayor declinación forestal, como ya está sucediendo en varios bosques del mundo. Con el fin de adaptarse al cambio climático, ¿Qué opciones de manejo forestal se tienen? ¿Cuáles podrían ser las consecuencias de la inacción? Se describe y discute la migración asistida, que consiste en la realineación física de poblaciones naturales con el clima para el cual están adaptadas, mediante la reforestación de los sitios donde se proyecta que el clima propicio ocurrirá en el futuro. Lo anterior se considera una opción de manejo activo para mantener los ecosistemas con árboles sanos en el futuro.

    Palabras clave:

Aitken, S. N., Yeaman, S., Holliday, J. A., Wang, T., & Curtis-McLane, S. (2008). Adaptation, migration or extirpation: Climate change outcomes for tree populations. Evolutionary Applications, 1, 95–111.

Alfaro, R. I., Fady, B., Vendramin, G. G., Dawson, I. K., Fleming, R. A., & Loo J. et al. (2014). The role of forest genetic resources in responding to biotic and abiotic factors in the context of anthropogenic climate change. Forest Ecology and Management, 333(1), 76−87. 

Bansal, S., Harrington, C. A., Gould, P. J., & StClair, J. B. (2015). Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Global Change Biology, 21, 947–958.

Betancourt, J. L. (1990). Late quaternary biogeography of the Colorado Plateau. In J. L. Betancourt, T. R. Van Devender, & P. S. Martin (Eds.), Packrat Middens, the last 40,000 years of biotic change (pp. 435−477). Arizona: University Arizona Press. 
Breshears, D. D., Cobb, N. S., Rich, P. M., Price, K. P., Allen, C. D., Balice, R. G., & Meyer, C. W. (2005). Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 102, 15144–15148.

Castellanos-Acuña, D., Lindig-Cisneros, R. A., & Sáenz- Romero, C. (2015) Altitudinal assisted migration of Mexican pines as an adaptation to climatic change. Ecosphere 6(1), article 2:1−16.

Chapin, F. S. III, & Starfield, A. M. (1997). Time lags and novel ecosystems in response to transient climatic change in Arctic Alaska. Climatic Change, 35, 449–461. 

Hansen, J. (2009). Storms of my grandchildren. New York, NY, USA: Bloomsbury Press. 
Hansen, J., & Sato, M. (2015). Global mean CO2 Mixing Ratios (ppm): Observations. >

Hansen, J., Sato, M., & Ruedy, R. (2012). Perception of climate change. Proccedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(37), 2415–2423.

Hewitt, N., Klenk, N., Smith, A. L., Bazely, D. R., Yan, N., Wood, S., & Henriques, I. (2011). Taking stock of the assisted migration debate. Biological Conservation, 144, 2560–2572. 

Hobbs, R. J., Higgs, E., & Harris, J. A. (2009). Novel ecosystems: implications for conservation and restoration. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 599-605.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). IPCC special report. Emissions scenarios: Summary for policymakers. USA: Author.>

Isaac, L. A. (1949). Better Douglas-fir forests from better seed. Seattle, WA, USA: University of Washington Press.>

Joyce, D. G., & Rehfeldt, G. E. (2013). Climatic niche, ecological genetics, and impact of climate change on eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.): Guidelines for land managers. Forest Ecology and Management, 295, 173–192.

Ledig, F. T., & Kitzmiller, J. H. (1992). Genetic strategies for reforestation in the face of global climate change. Forest Ecology and Management, 50, 153–169.

Ledig, F. T., Rehfeldt, G. E., Sáenz-Romero, C., & Flores-López, C. (2010). Projections of suitable habitat for rare species under global warming scenarios. American Journal of Botany, 97(6), 970–987.

Leites, L. P., Robinson, A. P., Rehfeldt, G. E., Marshall, J. D., & Crookston, N. L. (2012). Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data. Ecological Applications, 22(1), 154–165.

Lenoir, J., Gégout, J. C., Marquet, P. A, de Ruffray, P., & Brisse, H. (2008). A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century. Science, 320, 1768–1770. 

Loya-Rebollar, E., Sáenz-Romero, C., Lindig-Cisneros, R. A., Lobit, P., Villegas-Moreno, J., & Sánchez-Vargas, N. M. (2013). Clinal variation in Pinus hartwegii populations and its application for adaptation to climate change. Silvae Genetica, 62(3), 86–95. >

Malcolm, J. R., Markham, A., Neilson, R. P., & Garaci, M. (2002). Estimated migration rates under scenarios of global climate change. Journal of Biogeography, 29, 835– 849.

Marris, E. (2009). Planting the forest of the future. Nature, 459, 906–908. 

Mátyás, C. (2010). Forecasts needed for retreating forests. Nature, 464, 1271. doi:  

Mátyás, C., Berki, I., Czúcz, B., Gálos, B., Móricz, N., & Rasztovits, E. (2010). Future of beech in Southern Europe from the perspective of evolutionary ecology. Acta Silvatica & Lingaria Hungarica, 6, 91–110.

McCarty, J. P., & Zedler. J. B. (2001). Ecological restoration and its potential to reduce the negative impacts of global change. In H. A. Mooney, & J. Canadell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of global environmental change, Vol. 2: The Earth system: Biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change (pp. 532-539). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 
McLachlan, J. S., Clark, J. S., & Manos, P. S. (2005). Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology, 86, 2088–2098. 

McLachlan, J., Hellmann, J. J., & Schwartz, M. W. (2007). A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conservation Biology, 21(2), 297–302. 

O’Neill, G. A., Ukrainetz, N., Carlson, M., Cartwright, C., Jaquish, B., King, J., & Yanchuk, A. (2008). Assisted migration to address climate change in British Columbia: Recommendations for interim seed transfer standards. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: British Columbia- Ministry of Forest and Range Forest Science Program.>

Peñuelas, J., Oyaga, R., Boada, M., & Jump, A. S. (2007). Migration, invasion and decline: Changes in recruitment and forest structure in a warming-linked shift of European beech forest in Catalonia (NE Spain). Ecography, 30, 830–838. 

Pedlar, J. H., McKenny, D. W., Aubin, I., Beardmore, T., Beaulieu, J., Iverson, L., & Ste-Marie, C. (2012). Placing forestry in the assisted migration debate. BioScience, 62(9), 835–842. 

Prach, K., Kosnar, J., Klimesová, J., & Martin, H. (2010). High Arctic vegetation after 70 years: a repeated analysis from Svalbard. Polar Biology 33, 635–639.

Rehfeldt, G. E. (1988). Ecological genetics of Pinus contorta from the Rocky Mountains (USA): A synthesis. Silvae Genetica, 37(3-4), 131–135.>

Rehfeldt, G. E., Tchebakova, N. M., Parfenova, Y. I., Wykoff, W. R., Kuzmina N. A., & Milyutin, L. I. (2002). Intraspecific responses to climate in Pinus sylvestris. Global Change Biology, 8, 912–929. 

Rehfeldt, G. E., Ferguson, D. E., & Crookston, N. L. (2009). Aspen, climate and sudden decline in western USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 2353–2364. 

Rehfeldt, G. E., & Jaquish, B. C. (2010). Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate-change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15(3), 283–306. 

Rehfeldt, G. E., Crookston, N. L., Sáenz-Romero, C., & Campbell, E. (2012). North American vegetation model for land use planning in a changing climate: A statistical solution to large classification problems. Ecological Applications, 22(1), 119–141.

Rehfeldt, G. E., Jaquish, B. C., López-Upton, J., Sáenz-Romero, C., StClair, J. B., Leites, L. P., & Joyce, D. G. (2014). Comparative genetic responses to climate for the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: Realized climate niches. Forest Ecology and Management, 324, 126–137.

Ricciardi, A., & Simberloff, D. (2008). Assisted colonization is not a viable conservation strategy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 248–253. 

Sarr, D., Puettmann, K., Pabst, R., Cornett, M., & Leonel, A. (2004). Restoration Ecology: New perspectives and opportunities for forestry. Journal of Forestry, 102, 20– 24. Retrieved from  >

Sáenz-Romero, C., & Tapia-Olivares, B. L. (2008). Genetic variation in frost damage and seed zone delineation within an altitudinal transect of Pinus devoniana (P. michoacana) in Mexico. Silvae Genetica, 57(3), 165–170.>

Sáenz-Romero, C., Rehfeldt, G. E., Crookston, N. L., Duval, P., St-Amant, R., Beaulieu, J., & Richardson, B. (2010). Spline models of contemporary, 2030, 2060 and 2090 climates for México and their use in understanding climate-change impacts on the vegetation. Climatic Change, 102, 595–623.

Savolainen, O., Pyhajarvi, T., & Knurr, T. (2007). Gene flow and local adaptation in trees. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 38, 595–619. 

Seabrook, L., Mcalpine, C. A., & Bowen, M. E. (2011). Restore, repair or reinvent: Options for sustainable landscapes in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100, 407–410. 

Tchebakova, N. M., Rehfeldt, G. E., & Parfenova, E. I. (2005). Impacts of climate change on the distribution of Larix spp. and Pinus sylvestris and their climatypes in Siberia. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11, 861–882. 

Ukrainetz, N. K., O’Neill, G. A., & Jaquish, B. (2011). Comparison of fixed and focal point seed transfer systems for reforestation and assisted migration: A case study for interior spruce in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 41, 1452–1464. 

World Meteorological Organization (WMO). (2013). The Global Climate 2001-2010: A decade of climate extremes, Summary Report. WMO-1119. Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization.>

Sáenz-Romero, C., Lindig-Cisneros, R. A.,  Joyce, D. G.,  Beaulieu, J., St. Clair, J. B.,  &  Jaquish, B. C.,   (2016). Assisted migration of forest populations for adapting trees to climate change,  Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, XXII(3) 303-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchscfa.2014.10.052