Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
Declaración de privacidad

 

 

 

 
Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Volume VII, issue 2, July - December 2001
play_arrow
play_arrow
play_arrow

 

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS FROM NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) CALLUS CULTURES
EMBRIOGENESIS SOMÁTICA A PARTIR DE CALLOS DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)
R. Martínez-Ruiz; José Luis Rodríguez-de la O; J. Jesús Vargas-Hernández; H. S. Azpiroz-Rivero http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2002-01-29
Accepted: 2002-02-11
Available online: / pages 107-114

  • With the purpose to induce directly the creation of somatic embryos on calls, it was used explants of Neem in MS culture media (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) at different concentrations of benzyl adenine and indol acid. After that the calls were sub cultured in media with minerals of MS in different concentrations of GA3, malta extract, BA and AIA. It was possible to differentiation in globular structures or proembryos usig a microscopic stereoscopic with plan lens 1x and 10x21. The quantification of calls frequency was though the percent of observable value. The embryos structure development and germination of embryos were obtained combining AG3(1.0 mg·l-1) plus Benzyl adenine (0.3 mg·l-1) and Malt extract (500 mg·l-1).

THE EFFECT OF CONTAINER SIZE AND RHIZOTRON: A TOOL FOR INVESTIGATION AND TEACHING
EL EFECTO DE MACETA Y EL RIZOTRÓN: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA INVESTIGACIÓN Y DOCENCIA
G. Guedea-Fernández; A. Arriaga-Frías; G. De la Cruz-Guzmán http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2002-01-29
Accepted: 2002-02-11
Available online: / pages 115-123

  • The plants cultivated in flowerpots or in breeding grounds or conservatories, are in artificial conditions and little comparable with respect to a condition of field. Dimensions of the flowerpot must be based on the space requirements, considering the architecture and the speed of grout of the roots, as well as its phonological development. The traditional flowerpots do not allow physiological evaluations by the root in situ, an alternative is the use of rhizotron, which, by a side allows to evaluate dynamics and radical grout in situ and by another one diminishes the flowerpot effect. In the present work a model of rhizotron with dimensions sets out 42 X 30 X 10,5 cm with curve-slide sidewalls which allow to place it in three different positions with a depth corresponding to each one from the indicated dimensions. The design allows simultaneously to open to the face corresponding to the superior part or point where the plants plows placed and to lateral one through which the taking of ground samples or root or the registry of variable like pH or soil humidity among others. We propose this device for their use in investigation and teaching.

THE EFFECT OF THE COMMERCIAL INOCULANTE BuRIZE® (Glomus intrarradices) ON THE DEVELOPMENTOF Pinus engelmanni CARR
EFECTO DEL INOCULANTE COMERCIAL BuRIZE (Glomus intrarradices) SOBRE EL DESARROLLO DE Pinus engelmanni CARR.
G. Montes-Rivera; S. Solís-González; M. Quintos-Escalante http://dx.doi.org/
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 123-126

  • During a lot of time, it has reported that pine and eucalyptus trees promote ectomycorrhizal formation. However, some species belong to these type of trees may produce arbuscular mycorrhizae. It has been reported that a mycorrhizal root increase about 100 times the absorption of water and nutrients capacity if it is compared to a root without mycorrhizae. There are different sources to obtain the mycorrhizal inoculo for seedling production in nurseries: forest floor, natural or commercial spore, mycelium and nursed plants. In synthesis, the use of mycorrhizae, and the application of cultural and management practices in forest nurseries permit the production of improved seedling witharhigh quality and vigour able to increase field survival and performance. The main objetive en this research is to evaluate the effect of a commercial endomycorrhizal inoculo Glomus intraradices ( BuRIZE®) in the production of improved pine seedlings; as well as, the best inoculation method. 7cm hight Pinus engelmanni seedlings 1 month old was obtained from a nursey bed. Test treatments werw: 1.- Trasplant, 2.- Aspersion, 3.- Sustrate misxture and 4.- Control; with a 100 repetitions per treatment. Ar dosis of 20 ml containing a propagule/ml Was applied to seedlings. Black plastic bag containirs 10 x 20 cm werw used and filled white a peat moss, vermiculite and agrolite mixture in a 3:1:1 proportions. Evaluated variables werw: total seedling height, foliage height, root lenght, secundary roots number, and capiler diameter. he results of adding Glomus intrarradices endomycorrhyzae after 8 months in seedlings caliper diameter for trasplanting treatment (1); these differences were statiscally significant if comparated to control. Vigorous and quality 8 months old seedlings obtained once Glomus intrarradices is applied in forest nurseries, allows to state that a 12 month old pine seedlings are ready to leave nurseries for planting practices and to increase survival rates in the field. Prieto(1998), states that seedling leaving the nurseries must have terminal bud and the caliper diameter must be at least 5mm. Pine seedlings 8 months old obtained in this research improved caliper diameter valves as Prieto stated.

EFFECTS OF SALINITY ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF MICROPROPAGATED PRICKLY-PEAR CACTUS (Opuntia spp) PLANTLETS.
EFECTO DE LA SALINIDAD EN EL CRECIMIENTO Y ABSORCIÓN NUTRIMENTAL DE PLANTAS MICROPROPAGADAS DE NOPAL (Opuntia spp)
N. Calderón-Paniagua; A. A. Estrada-Luna; J. de J. Martínez-Hernández http://dx.doi.org/
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 127-132

  • Micropropagated prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) plantlets from three cultivars identified to produce fruits (O. amyclaea Tenore), vegetable (O. ficus-indica Miller (L.)), and forage (O. ficus-indica Miller (L.)) were trasplanted from tissue culture containers to pots and transferred to greenhouse conditions to be grown in a semi-automatic hydroponic system. During the time of culture, four salinity levels (2, 7 12, and 17 milisiemens, mS) were set up to evaluate their effect on the kinetics of growth and nutrient uptake of the plantlets. Fresh and dry matter production (PMF and PMS, respectively), were determined from each treatment in whole plantlet samples and mineral uptake (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg), from the aerial portion at 44, 107, 169, and 209 days after transplanting. Plant mass production (PMF and PMS) varied according to the type of cultivar. Consistently, the forage cultivar had the highest averages for both variables (PMF= 255.52 g and PMS= 10.59 g), while the vegetable cultivar the lowest (PMF= 148.60 g and PMS=6.08 g). Independently to the cultivar type, the use of a nutrient solution with a salinity level of 2 mS produced the highest values of PMS (13.77 g), PMF (338.55 g), and nutrient extraction (N=35.4 mg, P=95.8 mg, K=2914.3 mg, Ca=117.3 mg, and Mg=233.9 mg) by the plantlets. When the salinity level was increased to 7, 12, and 17 mS all variables measured were drastically reduced. These observations are associated with a desbalance among cations and anions in the solution. Despite temperature was not considered a factor under investigation, we observed its great influence on plant growth.

PHYTOSANITARY CONDITIONS OF CHINESE ELM (Ulmus parvifolia JACQ.) AT DELEGACION IZTACALCO, MEXICO CITY
DIAGNÓSTICO FITOSANITARIO DEL OLMO CHINO (Ulmus parvifolia JACQ.) EN LA DELEGACIÓN IZTACALCO DE LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO
David Cibrián-Tovar; J. Sánchez-Sámano; A. Zamudio-Valencia http://dx.doi.org/
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 133-138

  • In 1997, the phytosanitary and health conditions of the Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.) were evaluated in two big avenues of Delegación Iztacalco in Mexico City. The inspected trees were chosen by sampling 10 percent (559 individuals) of the total number of trees in both avenues (5590 trees). The trees were young and medium size, more than 85 % of the trees were below 11 m in high and below of 30 cm in diameter. These trees had injuries in the main stem, the majority of damages were caused by persons, and only 40.79 % of the trees had clean and healthy trunks. Associated with some of the injuries were wetwood and slimeflux, in 42.22 % of the tailored trees light or dark streaks of liquid were evident, in some of these streaks a longitudinal crack of the bark and wood release the liquid down on the bark. Many injuries also had galleries by wood borers, mainly by the cerambycid Placosternus erythropus, in 18.78 % of the trees with damages, insect galleries were present. In the crown of the inspected trees it was a generalized mortality of branches, 64.22 % of the trees had pruning scars, and park workers remove dead branches for security purposes. In the days of inspection, the 80.32 % of the trees actually had dead branches; in 78 % of these trees, the fungus Tubercularia vulgaris was present in the dead branches, this is an opportunistic species that can kill weakened branches. Color of the foliage also represent a signal of stress, only the 6.08 % of the trees had green normal color, the rest of individuals had foliage light green or green yellowish. The general health conditions of the trees were rated as moderate to poor and arboricultural measures were recommended to improve the health condition.

THE EFFECT OF NIM OIL Azadirachta indica A. JUSS., ON THE DRY WOOD TERMITE Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille) (ISOPTERA: KALOTERMITIDAE)
EFECTO DEL ACEITE DE NIM Azadirachta indica A. JUSS., SOBRE LA TERMITA DE MADERA SECA Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille) (ISOPTERA: KALOTERMITIDAE)
J. Arcos-Roa; J. T. Méndez-Montiel; R Campos-Bolaños http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2002-01-29
Accepted: 2002-02-11
Available online: / pages 139-142

  • In bioessays of selective and confinement, environments the effect of neem oil, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., on dry wood termite Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille) was evaluated by using the following concentrations of 0.5 %, 1.0 %, 1.5 %, 2.0 % and 3.0 % the variables measured were mortality, feeding inhibition and growth regulation through eight weeks. Filter paper was used as a feeding substrate. Both bioessays showed that termites attack was higher on non impregnated paper than the ones impregnated with oil; the mortality recorded by ingestion was attributed to inanition; of the termites on the other hand, there was a significant effect as termite growth regulation at the experimented doses (a= 0.05). In conclusion, filter paper soaked with neem oil on termite I. marginipennis has an inhibitory effect.

FIRE ECOLOGY IN THE Pinus harwegii Lindl. ECOSYSTEM
ECOLOGÍA DEL FUEGO EN EL ECOSISTEMA DE Pinus harwegii Lindl.
Dante Arturo Rodríguez-Trejo http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2002-02-22
Accepted: 2002-05-31
Available online: / pages 145-151

  • This work is an integration and analysis of information about forest fires in this ecosystem, including fire regime, fire behavior (based on fuels complex, topography and weather), fire adaptations of this pine (regeneration on burned localities, resprouting ability, thick bark, natural pruning, and restoration of foliage lost to fire) and associated species, and about fire impacts on vegetation, soil, hydrologic regime and air quality. A fire management proposal oriented to restoration is included.

EQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING PINE AND OAK TREES BIOMASS IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU OF CHIAPAS
ECUACIONES PARA ESTIMAR BIOMASA EN LA MESETA CENTRAL DE CHIAPAS
R. S. Ayala-López; B. H. J De Jong Bergsma; H. Ramírez-Maldonado http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2002-01-29
Accepted: 2002-02-11
Available online: / pages 153-157

  • This study was carried our in the Central Plateau of Chiapas. The objective was to obtain equations for estimating biomass of pines and oaks, as dry weight, taking total height and diameter as independent variables, and total, stem, canopy and small branches and leaves weights as dependent variables. Green weight was determined from samples from each part of the trees, and then those samples were oven dried to determine dry weight. From the sample results, the total dry weight of the different parts of the trees was inferred. Linear and non-linear regression analyses were used to fit several models. Appropriateness of fit was determined using residual sum of the squares and corrected coefficient of determination for linear regression and pseudo coefficient of determination for non-linear regression. The equations can be applied to similar tree species. Evaluating biomass, it will be possible to calculate assimilated carbon by the trees.

QUALITY STUDY OF RESIN FROM Pinus caribaea var. caribaea E ITS COMPONENTS
ESTUDIO DE LA CALIDAD DE LA RESINA DELPinus caribaea var. caribaea Y SUS COMPONENTES
J. F. Pastor-Bustamante http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2001-10-11
Accepted: 2001-12-05
Available online: / pages 159-162

  • Pine oilresin (no matter haw it is obtained), is made of colophony and spirits of soil of terpentine. The colophony is composed by a mixedness of resin acid, where abietic acid is predominated among other acid likewise spirit of oil of turpentine is also composed by monoturpentine hydrocarbon wilt a and b, acorten tu Clavel, 1995. Due to the studying of colophony and spirit of oil of turpentine obtanied by filtration (distillation) process using water steam in test pilot and industrial scale it was determinated the quality paramets because of they are very important to use the substances in industries and to comercialize them and to know where they are going to be used.

FUNDAMENTAL FACTORS TO INCREASE THE VOLUMETRIC YIELD IN CUBAN SAWMILLS
FACTORES FUNDAMENTALES PARA AUMENTAR EL RENDIMIENTO VOLUMÉTRICO EN LOS ASERRADEROS DE CUBA
A. Fernando-Egas; Daniel A. Álvarez-Lazo; I. Estévez-Valdés http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2001-10-04
Accepted: 2001-10-26
Available online: / pages 163-168

  • The present work is routed to determine and characterize the principal factors that influence on sawing yield in Cuba; for something witch is employed the statistic analysis of the previous information upon accomplishing a survey between specialist. It is appreciated that diameter, length and taper log; as well as saw type, log quality, and sawing method, they are the factor that more influence on sawing yield.

DETERMINATION OF THE WOOD MACHINING CHARACTERISTICS OF 34 TROPICAL SPECIES
DETERMINACIÓN DE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE MAQUINADO DE LA MADERA DE 34 ESPECIES TROPICALES
D. Zavala-Zavala; M. Vázquez-Rodríguez http://dx.doi.org/1111
Received: 2001-10-30
Accepted: 2002-02-22
Available online: / pages 169-183

  • The determination of wood machining characteristics are basic to define its utilization in the manufacture of products that require smooth surfaces. In this study 34 tropical species were analized according to the ASTM-D-1666-64 standard for planning, turning, molding, boring and sanding tests. In the planning test, 13 species were evaluated as excellent and good, therefore they can be used in any product where the smoothness of the surface is a requirement; 14 were rated as regular and 7 as poor and very poor. Regarding the cutting angles, the best results were obtained with 20 ° in woods with high and medium density, and the 30 ° is more adequate for low density woods. In the turning test, 24 species were classified as excellent and are suggested to be used in works where smoothness is required; 4 were graded as good and 3 as regular, both adequate for turning products if a good sanding process is applied; the last 3 species were classified as poor and very poor. From the molding evaluation, it is suggested that 21 species be used in molding products and the 13 left, with low quality due to the effect of the cutting in diagonal direction to the grain, could be improved when the cutting is performed in the parallel direction to the grain. In the boring test, a large percentage of the species, presented excellent results, 24 species equivalent to 74 %, 3 good, 1 regular and 6 poor and very poor. In the sanding process, 15 species were graded as excellent, 4 as good, 6 as regular and 9 as poor and very poor. Integrating the results of every one of the machining test, 28 species can be used for products were the surface smoothness is important, such as furniture, turning products (tool handles), handicrafts, cabinets in general, etc. The 6 species with poor machining characteristics could be used in products were the smoothness is not a limitation, such as pallets, containers, studs and construction in general, or other uses as rough lumber.

GRADING AND METHOD OF CODING PIECES IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY
MÉTODO DE CLASIFICACIÓN Y CODIFICACIÓN DE PIEZAS EN LA INDUSTRIA DEL MUEBLE
Mario Ramos-Maldonado; M. Sigrist http://dx.doi.org/
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 185-191

  • In this last decades, discreet production systems have passed from a massive type manufacturing to a of variety of products. In these systems, machines execute different tasks in different parts. This generates different possible routes for each part to process. A great variety of products increases the time of design and affects the good management. And for consequence this affects the achievement of the production objectives. Furniture industry can be classified in this type of manufacturing systems, where variety of products and half volume of production are their main characteristics. In this work, located in the frame of Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Group Technology (TG), we propose a codification and classification method of solid wood parts for furniture industry. Objective of this method is to achieve a quick classification of parts of wood. This serves to the design engineer to obtain for each new part it corresponding “family “ of parts. With this family, parts can deduce the process planning associated to this new part, reducing the cycle of life of the product. On the other hand, the same classification-codification can serve to reorganize the manufacturing system in islands or cells, where each one of these cells could be able to process a family of parts. Our method, based on the OPITZ method, uses alphanumeric codes and was adapted to the furniture industry. Results show that it is possible to classify and to code real parts in the industry quickly. Numerous validations corroborate the above-mentioned.