Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
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Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Volume XIV, issue 2, July - December 2008
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NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL SCARIFICATION OF Lupinus bilineatus Benth. Seeds
ESCARIFICACIÓN ARTIFICIAL Y NATURAL DE LA SEMILLA DE Lupinus bilineatus Benth.
J. M. Martínez; Dante Arturo Rodríguez-Trejo; E. Guízar-Nolazco; R. Bonilla-Beas
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 73-79

  • The species of Lupinus colonize burned areas and fix N. In other countries, the species of this genus are utilized in forest plantation and agroforestry systems. Their seeds exhibit physical dormancy. In the present study was conducted the seed testing and was studied the germination of Lupinus bilineatus Benth., considering the following factors and levels: scarification (natural: fire, smoke; artificial: immersion in sulfuric acid during 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes), day/night temperature regime in controlled environment chamber (15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 °C) and light (with and without light). The experimental design was in ramdom blocks, with the blocks nested into the temperature factor. Was conducted a mixed variance analysis (with the Mixed procedure of SAS) and the Tukey test. The purity was 97.1 %, the weight 66,666.7 seeds·kg-1, the humidity content (dry weight basis) 7.1 %, and the viability 98 % (tetrazolium test). For the germination was significant (P=0.0101) the interaction among scarification treatment, temperature and light. The maximum germination (82.5 %) was recorded for the seed scarified chemically during 30 or 40 minutes, at 25/20 °C with light. The higher the chemical scarification time the higher the germination. At 20/15 °C with light, the germination after fire scarification (38.5%) was higher than the one for the control (18.5 %). Generally the control showed germinations lower than 30 % in the different treatments, showing different levels of physical dormancy in the studied seed, and the relevance of fire to reduce such dormancy. It was relevant the utility of chemical scarification to stop the dormancy.

PHYTOPLASM: SYMPTOM AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS
FITOPLASMAS: SÍNTOMAS Y CARACTERÍSTICAS MOLECULARES
Gabriel Camarena-Gutiérrez; R. De La Torre-Almaraz
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 81-87

  • Phytoplasms are plant-pathogenic they usually inhabit phloem sieve tubes and are transmitted from plant to plant by phloem-feeding insects. Phytoplasms, formerly called mycoplasm-like organisms, are associated with diseases in several hundred plant species. The use of molecular probes, phytoplasm-specific cloned DNA and monoclonal antibodies have made it possible to classify phytoplasms on the basis of DNA-DNA homology and serological data. Recent investigations, particularly sequence analysis of 16S rDNA, have revealed that phytoplasms constitute a coherent, genus-level taxon. In the monophyletic phytoplasm clade, groups and subgroups have been delineated, many of which are being considered as putative species under the provisional status ‘Candidatus’ for incompletely described prokaryotes

BIOMASS INCREMENT AND SURVIVAL OF A Pinus hartwegii PLANTATION ON BURNED AREAS
INCREMENTO EN BIOMASA Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE UNA PLANTACIÓN DE Pinus hartwegii Lindl. EN ÁREAS QUEMADAS
J. N. Ortíz-Rodríguez; Dante Arturo Rodríguez-Trejo
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 89-95

  • In the year 2002 prescribed fire treatments were applied on open Pinus hartwegii Lindl., forests in the Ajusco volcano, south of Mexico City, Mexico. The treatments consisted of two fire-intensities: high and low, and two seasons of fire application: March and May, plus an unburned control (one per season). In July of the same year were planted 420 seedlings of two size categories (big and small). In this work were evaluated the survival and biomass increment of such trees three years after plantation establishment. It was recorded the survival in all of the forest plantation and a 30 trees sample was gathered to determine biomass. The mortality probability was estimated with a logistic model. The analysis of variance and the least significant difference test were utilized for the other variables. The probability of mortality of the trees in the control did not show differences with the trees in the May burns, but it was lower than that of the March burns. Such response in the March treatments was adduced to the earlier competition, for the competition in the forest plantation was not eliminated, also to a higher understory cover and to a lesser abundance of nurse shrubs. There was no effect of treatments on tree growth. The total biomass increment was equal to 8.5 g·yr-1.

REFORESTATION TRIALS WITH PINYON PINE SPECIES IN THE NORTHEASTERN OF MEXICO
ENSAYOS DE ESPECIES CON PINOS PIÑONEROS EN EL NORDESTE DE MÉXICO
E. de los Ríos Carrasco; R. De Hoog; Jose de Jesus Návar-Cháidez
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 97-104

  • There are numerous degraded areas by overgrazing practices in the interior valleys of the eastern Sierra Madre mountain range of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Reforestation and plant restoration practices can incorporate tree species adapted to these conditions of degradation as well as to consistent regional drought spells and that they had been previously and successfully tested in other places and above all if these species are listed in any of the red books of the biological conservation. This research work set as objective to test the adaptation of three pinyon pine species (P. cembroides Zucc., P. nelsonii Shaw. y P. pinceana Gord.) 19 years after planted in the slopes of the eastern Sierra Madre mountain range of the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The experimental design employed was a randomized block, with three species, with three replicates, and two locations, characterized by altitude above sea level (1,250 and 1,680 masl). In each quadrat we planted 49 seedlings with a space of 1 x 1 m, with a total for each species and block of 147 seedlings. Basal diameter, top height, and survival were measured every six months during the first three years and a last observation conducted during 2002. The results indicated that P. pinceana developed better in top height and survived better at both sites and performed better when growing in basal diameter at site with the highest altitude. P. cembroides performed better in basal diameter at the site with the lowest altitude. Survival was in general above 50 % at the end of measurements and there are indications that tree mortality by intraspecific competence was already taking place. These results indicate that both P. pinceana and P. cembroides can be widely reforested in the slopes of the eastern Sierra Madre mountain range of the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

EARLY DASOMETRIC EVALUATION OF AN AGROFORESTRY PLANTATION OF THREE INTRODUCED SPECIES, IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF HUEHUETLA, HIDALGO
EVALUACIÓN DASOMÉTRICA TEMPRANA DE UNA PLANTACIÓN AGROFORESTAL DE TRES ESPECIES INTRODUCIDAS, EN EL MUNICIPIO DE HUEHUETLA, HIDALGO
B. Arteaga-Martínez; M. Castelán-Lorenzo
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 113-118

  • An agroforestry plantation was established in Huehuetla, Hgo., México, with three fast growth tropical species: pink cedar (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight et Arn.), melina (Gmelina arborea Roxb.), and teak (Tectona grandis L. f.), to conduct an early assessment on to the survival and growth potential. The experimental design was the split plot blocks, each block consisted on a single site, in which were established nine sites with 25 trees of the three species in each block and different planting densities, 3 x 3, 2.5 x 2.5 and 2 x 2 m. Three blocks were established (sites), resulting a total of 27 plots for the three blocks. Each site had 75 trees of each species, 225 overall. The ANOVA test for the three variables: height, basal diameter and volume showed significant differences (P

EVALUATION OF ARBOREAL STRATUM INA RECOVEREDAREA POST-FIRE IN THE CHIPINQUE ECOLOGICAL PARK, MEXICO
EVALUACIÓN DEL ESTRATO ARBÓREO EN UN ÁREA RESTAURADA POST-INCENDIO EN EL PARQUE ECOLÓGICO CHIPINQUE, MÉXICO
Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez; Javier Jiménez-Pérez; D: Espinoza-Vizcarra; Enrique Jurado-Ybarra; Oscar A. Aguirre-Calderón; Marco A. González-Tagle
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 113-118

  • Restoration ecology practices undertaken after forest fires in a Pine-Oak forest at Parque Ecologico Chipinque, have been poorly monitored, and its efficiency is unknown. In 2007 the arboreal stratum of restored and not restored areas that were burnt in wildfires of 1998 was compared with a mature ecosystem of reference. The results showed significant differences in terms of diversityabundance (t of Hutcheson (P

SURVEILLANCE OF OCCURRENCE OF FOREST FIRES FROM WEATHER STATIONS
VIGILANCIA DEL RIESGO DE OCURRENCIA DE INCENDIOS FORESTALES MEDIANTE ESTACIONES METEOROLÓGICAS DE SUPERFICIE
Ismabel María Domínguez-Hurtado; Aldo Saturnino Moya-Álvarez; Alejandro Estrada-Moreno
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 119-128

  • It is proposed a surveillance system to detect the risk of occurrence of forest fires on the basis of information from meteorological stations, due mainly to lack of operational daily departures to assess the conditions of risk of fires nationwide. Rates were used Neste rov amended and Monte Alegre, which were estimated from data from the 68 meteorological stations in Cuba. From that information is obtained mapificada daily output of each of them, using the technique of bicubic spline interpolation. We obtained an operating system for fully automated evaluation of the risk of occurrence of fires to Cuba, which has the potential to supplement and perfect the system for monitoring fires, based on reducing the time scale and the treatment of information.

FEEDING OF Chirostoma humboldtianum (VALENCIENNES); (PISCES: ATHERINOPSIDAE) INTO JC POND IN SOYANIQUILPAN, STATE OF MÉXICO
ALIMENTACIÓN DE Chirostoma humboldtianum (VALENCIENNES); (PISCES: ATHERINOPSIDAE) EN EL ESTANQUE JCEN SOYANIQUILPAN, ESTADO DE MÉXICO
G. Elías-Fernández; Norma Angélica Navarrete-Salgado; J. L. Rodríguez Robles
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 129-134

  • The smalls like fishes are endemic fishes in the central region of Mexico, and they have been to eat since prehispanic time, nowadays, the volume catch has decreased because their overfishing and habitat pollution so, it is very important to study these populations remains to know about their ecological and diet require and to express any alternatives to their conservation. Our goals in this study were; to determinate what kind of groups food Chirostoma humboldtianum foods into JC pond in Soyaniquilpan, State of Mexico and to know about physics and chemical parameters water variations. We took six monthly sampling to December of 2001 to May of 2002. We registered temperature, depth, transparency, conductivity, muddy, pH, oxygen, hardness and alkalinity. The fishes were captured in a mesh of measure ring 25 meters with 8.0 millimeters aperture and they were fixed with formalin to 10 %. The food content was identified using specializing keys. The volumetric and frequency methods were used to determinate food groups percentage. The water was warm, muddy, concentration dissolute oxygen medium, moderate hardness. Chirostoma humboldtianum consumed 21 groups of organisms Keratella Trichocerca, Asplanchna, Bosmina outstanding further copepod, corixids and chironomids. Frequency method showed Cyclops and Keratella like preferential foods.

GLOBAL FOOD SUSTAINAIBILITY INDEX: GROWTH RATE OF FOODS AGAINST POPULATION
ÍNDICE DE SUSTENTABILIDAD ALIMENTARIA GLOBAL: TASA DE CRECIMIENTO ALIMENTARIA CONTRA TASA DE CRECIMIENTO POBLACIONAL
Francisco J. Zamudio-Sánchez; José Luis Romo-Lozano; Nohemi Espinosa-García
http://dx.doi.org/0000
Received: 0000-00-00
Accepted: 0000-00-00
Available online: / pages 135-140

  • The global food system’s sustainability is of crucial importance and must be measured objectively. For this purpose it was built the global food sustainability index (GFSI) and a suitable model, with present hypotheses, which explains the global system productionconsumption of foods to monitor it and determine if it keeps, the next 50 years, on its historical trend. The GFSI compare the rates of growth of main human foods’ production and world population. Using confidence limits, which take into account the phenomenon’s intrinsic variation, the lower one is used as a reference for the system’s sustainability. Results from the information period 1961-1998 show that, in general, the food system stayed out of no sustainable. There were two intervals, 1976-1977 and 1993-1994, where it was close to a non sustainable condition, both related with political and socioeconomic accomplishments. During 1999 to 2002 the GFSI was above the prediction lower limit calculated with the original information, showing up that the system kept it away from a non Índice de sustentabilidad... sustainable condition. The information of those four years was added to the initial one to validate the model’s stability. The proposed idea allows having a simple reference, but with a plausible background, that measures the food production system likelihood to stay out of a critical state until year 2050.