Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente
Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
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THE MANAGEMENT OF COCONUT PALM (Cocos nucifera L) IN MEXICO
MANEJO DE LA PALMA DE COCO ((Cocos nucifera L) EN MÉXICO
Diódoro Granados-Sánchez; Georgina F. López-Ríos

Doi:dx.doi.org/1111

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  • In this paper we review the origin, distribution, botany, diversity, ecology, cultivation, production, economic importance, problems and perspectives of the integral management of the coconut palm. Also, aspects such as the copra and “tuba” in Mexico, as well as case studies of the coast of Michoacán and Colima are considered from a botanical perspective. With this analysis we emphasize the importance of the coconut palm as a plant of multiple uses with an incalculable value in the tropical coast of Mexico.

ECOLOGY OF EPIPHYTES PLANTS
ECOLOGÍA DE LAS PLANTAS EPÍFITAS
Diódoro Granados-Sánchez; Georgina F. López-Ríos; Miguel Á. Hernández-García; Arturo Sánchez-González

Doi:dx.doi.org/

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  • The adaptation of epiphyte plants to relatively xeric environments in forest canopies occurs in families that are extraordinarily rich in species (Orchidaceae, Araceae, Piperaceae and Bromeliacea). Epiphytic plants live in the trunks and branches of trees; in this way, they are in a favorable position to receive sunlight. Epiphytes have three different photosynthetic pathways, depending on the supply of light and water, a minority C4 and CAM, but most C3.

GRADING AND METHOD OF CODING PIECES IN THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY
MÉTODO DE CLASIFICACIÓN Y CODIFICACIÓN DE PIEZAS EN LA INDUSTRIA DEL MUEBLE
Mario Ramos-Maldonado; M. Sigrist

Doi:dx.doi.org/

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  • In this last decades, discreet production systems have passed from a massive type manufacturing to a of variety of products. In these systems, machines execute different tasks in different parts. This generates different possible routes for each part to process. A great variety of products increases the time of design and affects the good management. And for consequence this affects the achievement of the production objectives. Furniture industry can be classified in this type of manufacturing systems, where variety of products and half volume of production are their main characteristics. In this work, located in the frame of Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) and Group Technology (TG), we propose a codification and classification method of solid wood parts for furniture industry. Objective of this method is to achieve a quick classification of parts of wood. This serves to the design engineer to obtain for each new part it corresponding “family “ of parts. With this family, parts can deduce the process planning associated to this new part, reducing the cycle of life of the product. On the other hand, the same classification-codification can serve to reorganize the manufacturing system in islands or cells, where each one of these cells could be able to process a family of parts. Our method, based on the OPITZ method, uses alphanumeric codes and was adapted to the furniture industry. Results show that it is possible to classify and to code real parts in the industry quickly. Numerous validations corroborate the above-mentioned.

SYSTEMICACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN PLANT: STATE OF ART
RESISTENCIA SISTÉMICA ADQUIRIDA EN PLANTAS: ESTADO ACTUAL
Gabriel Camarena-Gutiérrez; R. De La Torre-Almaraz

Doi:dx.doi.org/

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  • Host plant can be protected against further pathogen attack if they have survived earlier infection by pathogenic viruses, bacteria or fungi. It appears that the first infecting pathogen, or some an injury, “immunizes” the plant against further infections by homologous pathogens. The first infecting pathogen “induced” expression of resistance reactions against subsequently infecting pathogens, regardless of whether they are viruses, bacteria or fungi. This response is called systemic acquired resistance. Systemic acquired resistance refers to distinct signal transduction pathway that plays an important role in the ability of plants to defend them selves against pathogen.

MAIN VERTEBRATE PESTS IN MEXICO: PRESENT SITUATION AND ALTERNATIVES FOR THEIR MANAGEMENTE
PRINCIPALES VERTEBRADOS PLAGA EN MÉXICO: SITUACIÓN ACTUAL Y ALTERNATIVAS PARA SU MANEJO
D. del Villar-González

Doi:dx.doi.org/

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  • This paper analizes the recent problematic related with rats, mice, gophers, squirrels, lagomorphs and birds in Mexican agroecosystems. This situation was evaluated by a survery done by the Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería y Desarrollo Rural (SAGAR) in the different States of Mexico. The rodents are the major (59.3 %) vertebrate pests that affect the Mexican agroecosystems. Corn, sorghum, rice, bean and sugar cane are the crops most damaged by vertebrate pest. Likewise, it analizes the different methods used to control these populations.

ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY IN ARID ZONES
PRODUCTIVIDAD DE LOS ECOSISTEMAS EN LAS REGIONES ÁRIDAS
Miguel Á. Hernández-García; Diódoro Granados-Sánchez; Arturo Sánchez-González

Doi:dx.doi.org/

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  • The production in terrestrial ecosystems is influenced by climate, especially temperature and precipitation. Temperature influences the photosynthesis rate, and the available quantity of water limits both photosynthesis and the number of leaves that the plant can support and, consequently, the total production of plants. The high temperatures and low humidity make deserts one of the least productive terrestrial ecosystems. In this manner, an almost linear relationship exists between rainfall and the productivity of aerial plant organs.

VEGETATION ECOLOGY OF THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT
ECOLOGÍA DE LA VEGETACIÓN DEL DESIERTO CHIHUAHUENSE
Diódoro Granados-Sánchez; Amparo Borja-de la Rosa; Arturo Sánchez-González; Ro L. Granados-Victorino

Doi:dx.doi.org/10.5154/r.rchscfa.2010.10.102

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  • The Chihuahuan Desert (CD), the largest in the Americas, is flanked by mountains that prevent wet winds from blowing across it; those mountain ranges are the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Trans- Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, and the Rockies in the United States. The desert covers an area of 507,000 km2, stretching from New Mexico and Texas in the United States to parts of the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas and Zacatecas in Mexico. Field work consisted of the qualitative characterization of the main vegetation types in the CH, based on their physiognomy and the collection of plant specimens for later identification. With the composition and physiognomy data, semi-realistic profiles were made of the main plant associations and the physiographic and soil conditions where they thrive. The associations detected were: Larrea tridentata microphyll scrub, Agave lechuguilla rosette scrub, Dasylirion spp. rosette scrub, grassland, chaparral, nopalera (a patch of prickly pears), mesquite, yucca, dune vegetation and halophytic vegetation.

AN EQUATION FOR ESTIMATION OF VOLUME OF Pinus occidentalis Sw. PLAN SIERRA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
ECUACIÓN PARA EL CÁLCULO DEL VOLUMEN DEL ÁRBOL PARA Pinus occidentalis Sw., EN EL PLAN SIERRA, REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA
J. M. Montalvo-Guerrero; Santiago W. Bueno-López; J. Gilberto-Torres

Doi:dx.doi.org/1111

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  • The imminent rise in the cost of raw material used by the forest industry in the Dominican Republic requires volumetric tables that are capable of estimating, as precisely as possible, the volumes of trees and stands that provide the raw material. Accuracy in the estimation is essential for the rational planning of forest management. This study presents an equation for the estimation of volume, which was later used to create a table of cubic quantities of wood stands of Pinus occidentalis Sw., which are used and managed within a plan of reordering of natural forests by Plan Sierra in its area of influence. The equation obtained in this study is compared with that generated by Gil and Cuevas (1986) used for the construction of the cubing table used for 14 years. It is intended to substitute the existing table, for which the samples were taken from stands of trees that possess specific characteristics and differ in their development (They are smaller and thinner) and in soil and climate from the rest of the area of influence of Plan Sierra. The sample for the existing table was 40 trees, while, for this study, we sampled 191 trees representative of the three different zones that occur in the Sierra.

ECOLOGY AND SILVICUALTURE IN TEMPERATA FOREST
ECOLOGÍA Y SILVICULTURA EN BOSQUES TEMPLADOS
Diódoro Granados-Sánchez; Georgina F. López-Ríos; Miguel Á. Hernández-García

Doi:dx.doi.org/

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  • In this text, the handling of the cold temperate forests, and particularly of Mexican forests, which include pine, oak-pine, and “oyamel” forests mainly, is considered from an ecological approach. For this, forms of silvicultural exploitation are analyzed, locating forestry practices such as: establishment, growth, composition and quality of the forest vegetation, pruning, fertilization, irrigation, prescribed burn, ground removal, cleaning and recovery cuts. It is emphasized about the management in these ecosystems with respect to the way in which they are disturbed by the extraction practices, since basically the forest handling has by objective the production. As a proposal of suitable handling, eco-physiological aspects of trees, such as their adaptation to the competition by light, dryness, poor grounds and low temperatures, are taken into account. It is emphasized on the played function by forests in diverse vital environmental services for the survival of the man and the biosphere in general (recreation, excesses heat and luminosity, absorption, to restrain winds and to defend grounds of the erosion, CO2 capture, and regulation of the hydrologic cycle, mainly). Finally, the problematic of deforestation is registered and the option of forest handling is considered from the perspective of multiple uses within the framework of sustainability.

AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: an alternative of sustainable rural development for the mexican tropic
SISTEMAS AGROSILVOPASTORILES: una alternativa de desarrollo rural sustentable para el trópico mexicano
Miguel Ángel Musálem-Santiago

Doi:dx.doi.org/1111

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  • Agroforestry definitions, concepts and characteristic and the importance and perspectives in Mexico are presented. Also, it is described some of the most important systems in the temperate, tropical and arid regions of Mexico. Likewise, it is exemplified with some practices product of the recent investigation applied in the tropical region of Puebla and Veracruz and in the temperate area of the State of Mexico. Likewise, the application of the agrosilvopastoral systems is emphasized in the small producers farms in the tropic of Mexico.